Environmental policies, the main tools that governments use to achieve environmental goals, cut across a wide swath of pollutants, industries, and stakeholders. Environmental policies affect the daily activities of every citizen and every business. Governments use environmental policy to protect their citizens' health, develop industries, preserve resources, increase national security, and more. This course introduces students to the major rationales for government intervention in environmental affairs, the academic theories on which these interventions are based, the variety of policy approaches that various levels of government often use to address environmental issues, the benefits and drawbacks of various approaches, the political processes involved in the enviromental policy-making process, the tools that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness and tradeoffs of policy alternatives, and how these policies may affect government and business competitiveness. In addition, the course examines new directions in environmental policy, both policies gaining popularity and those not yet adopted.